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Lorem Ipsum is simply dummy text of the printing and typesetting industry. Lorem Ipsum has been the industry’s standard dummy text ever since the 1500s, when an unknown printer took a galley of type and scrambled it to make a type specimen book. It has survived not only five centuries, but also the leap into electronic typesetting, remaining essentially unchanged. It was popularised in the 1960s with the release of Letraset sheets containing Lorem Ipsum passages, and more recently with desktop publishing software like Aldus PageMaker including versions of Lorem Ipsum.

Lorem Ipsum is simply dummy text of the printing and typesetting industry. Lorem Ipsum has been the industry’s standard dummy text ever since the 1500s, when an unknown printer took a galley of type and scrambled it to make a type specimen book. It has survived not only five centuries, but also the leap into electronic typesetting, remaining essentially unchanged. It was popularised in the 1960s with the release of Letraset sheets containing Lorem Ipsum passages, and more recently with desktop publishing software like Aldus PageMaker including versions of Lorem Ipsum.

Lorem Ipsum is simply dummy text of the printing and typesetting industry. Lorem Ipsum has been the industry’s standard dummy text ever since the 1500s, when an unknown printer took a galley of type and scrambled it to make a type specimen book. It has survived not only five centuries, but also the leap into electronic typesetting, remaining essentially unchanged. It was popularised in the 1960s with the release of Letraset sheets containing Lorem Ipsum passages, and more recently with desktop publishing software like Aldus PageMaker including versions of Lorem Ipsum.

Lorem Ipsum is simply dummy text of the printing and typesetting industry. Lorem Ipsum has been the industry’s standard dummy text ever since the 1500s, when an unknown printer took a galley of type and scrambled it to make a type specimen book. It has survived not only five centuries, but also the leap into electronic typesetting, remaining essentially unchanged. It was popularised in the 1960s with the release of Letraset sheets containing Lorem Ipsum passages, and more recently with desktop publishing software like Aldus PageMaker including versions of Lorem Ipsum.

Copyright refers to the exclusive legal rights given to the creator or author to produce, reproduce, publish, display, make available, distribute or perform an original literary, artistic, dramatic or musical works. This is why copyright is often referred to as a “bundle of rights”.

Copyright allows rights owners in creative works such as music, poetry, literature, software and films to protect their work from being copied or used without their permission.

Copyright protects original creative works as long as it meets the conditions set out in the Copyright Act of Canada (the “Copyright Act”). Literary, musical, artistic, or other creative works are protected, but facts, ideas, and systems are not protected. In brief, copyright protects the expression of an idea, but not the idea itself – nobody can have a monopoly or exclusive rights in an idea.

No, you don’t have to register your original work to obtain a copyright. As long as your work qualifies as an original work is protected under the Copyright Act, it’s immediately protected by copyright once it’s in a tangible form.

Yes, unless you are an employee who created the work within the scope of your employment in which case the presumption would be that the work belongs to your employer – for example, a staff photographer for a newspaper or a software coder for a technology company. You can also assign your copyright in the work to someone else, but it must be in writing and signed.

While you don’t have to register your copyright to be protected in Canada, it does come with certain benefits. Copyright registration creates a presumption that the work is protected by copyright and that you are the registered owner of the copyright. This presumption can be rebutted, but it can be helpful in asserting your rights in the work.

In Canada, copyright lasts your entire life plus an additional 50 years. After those 50 years, the copyright ends and the work enters the public domain. However, as part of Canada’s obligations under the USCMA (the new NAFTA agreement), the term of copyright will be extended to the life of the creator plus 70 years in 2022. William Shakespeare’s works are an example of public domain materials. There is a common misconception that works reproduced on the internet or on social media are in the “public domain” and that is false – works only enter the public domain through the death of the creator or if the rights owner grants their work to the public domain.

Copyright protects original creative works. As noted, facts and ideas do not meet the conditions of the Copyright Act, as well as anything in the public domain. There could also be utilitarian works such as very simple designs and photographs that do not satisfy the threshold for originality, but keep in mind that the threshold is very low – it does not need to be a “work of art” in order to be protected by copyright.

Lorem Ipsum is simply dummy text of the printing and typesetting industry. Lorem Ipsum has been the industry’s standard dummy text ever since the 1500s, when an unknown printer took a galley of type and scrambled it to make a type specimen book. It has survived not only five centuries, but also the leap into electronic typesetting, remaining essentially unchanged. It was popularised in the 1960s with the release of Letraset sheets containing Lorem Ipsum passages, and more recently with desktop publishing software like Aldus PageMaker including versions of Lorem Ipsum.

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